Deep sea core dating
The Italian peninsula underwent considerable uplift in post-Pliocene times (i.e., within the past 2.6 million years), as a result of which a strip of older rocks has been exposed on the Adriatic flank of the Apennines.The Italian Adriatic coast is typical of an emerged coast.
The interpretation of geologic data suggests that there are, at present, multiple main areas of collision between Africa and Eurasia, resulting in volcanism, mountain building, and land submergence.seabed sediment cores drilled in 19 initially seemed to reinforce an earlier theory that about 6 million years ago the Mediterranean was a dry desert nearly 10,000 feet (3,000 metres) below the present sea level and covered with evaporite salts.
The Ionian Basin, in the area known as the Ionian Sea, lies to the south of Italy and Greece, where the deepest sounding in the Mediterranean, about 16,000 feet (4,900 metres), has been recorded.
A submarine ridge between the western end of Crete and Cyrenaica (Libya) separates the Ionian Basin from the Aegean Sea, which comprises that part of the Mediterranean Sea north of Crete and bounded on the west and north by the coast of Greece and on the east by the coast of Turkey.
Considerable uncertainty has remained regarding the chronology and character of sea-bottom salt formation, and evidence from subsequent seismic studies and core sampling has been subject to intense scientific debate.
Strait of Messina, both of which have been of great strategic importance throughout Mediterranean history.
The submarine relief of the Sicilian channel is rather complicated; the group of islands comprising Malta, Gozo, and Comino, all of which consist of limestone, stands on a submarine shelf that extends southward from Sicily.